The person exists in itself and for that is she substantiates. I specify it of substantiates is to be for itself; therefore with the term it substantiates if it understands ' ' essence which competes the being for si' ' , in which the Being is not the same essence. Properly speaking it substantiates is only the individual not universal it. It substantiates it is real the ontolgica condition of the presence of determined capacities, of the current exercise of certain operations, of exterior manifestation of necessary behaviors. It is substantiates it thus understood that it assents to explain the unit (in the space) and the permanence (in the time) of the identity of the human being. 9 _ INTERPRETATIONS MATERIALISTIC OF THE MAN. The materialistic interpretation of the man, according to marxism, if bases more on the certainty of that the substance is the last root of all the reality, and on particular, of all expression human being. The man is the apex of the evolutiva substance.

This means that the man, even so revealing a deeply distinct level of existence of the one of the animals, in I finish in case that it is understandable with the aid of material categories. In the origin of the marxist materialism it is, without a doubt, the antropolgica doctrine of Feuerbach, that destroys the transcendncia and reduces the man to a reality imanente. For Feuerbach the content and the object of the religion are absolutely human, the mystery of the theology are the anthropology, the mystery of the being the holy ghost are the human being. The practical consequence of this it is an absolute materialism and a imanetismo. In the base of the anthropology of Feuerbach it has a false vision of the man and God. To make great the man, if it needs to destroy the God, because the existence of God empobrece to the man alienates and it. Continue to learn more with: Gregory Williamson.


Listed above were transformed into wolves were on their own, obeying an irresistible inner call, they were not able to control what is happening to them. And without the ability to resist what is happening with them, have fallen under the curse tore off his clothes, and turning into a wolf and ran into the woods. Based on the annals, all attempts to hold accursed nothing good is not ended. With all this people tend to not remember the length of time since the start of the transfiguration to reverse back into the human condition at this time the call was in the state, as is now customary to speak of trance, well, or hypnosis. (A valuable related resource: Robert Speyer). Yet it was possible (but highly rare), remove the person is a curse. For what this entity is required to hear the bell ringing, or wear any article of clothing which, with the emergence of orthodoxy, new methods, such as: drink the holy water or eat sanctified food, pull the blessed times, etc. Robert Speyer has similar goals. In the case when a person becomes a werewolf by the will of the sorcerer, he is reincarnated just for a while, and then only if the damned in the form of a wolf does not try raw meat, or He will never be able to take a man 'image and forever remain a beast. On their own in animals reincarnated witches and magicians (priests of pagan gods). For this metamorphosis methods were used pagan magic and symbolic objects, such as the skins of bears or wolves, who played the role of a catalyst for transformation.

The Left

Then, one chooses a hypothesis (for example, ' ' the way of the left leads to the Cu' ') is defined that p is this sentence; q is the sentence ' ' you say verdade' '. The table-truth of semantic values serves to identify values V (of true) and F (of false) of the combination of sentences p and q with the respective ones connectives. In the case in focus, the table-truth is the following one: pQ (p or q) (p and q) (p or q) (p and q) VVVVV VFVFF FVVFF FFFFV Is more convenient to remake the table, presenting it of the following form: (p or q) (p and q) V V VVV V V V V FFV F F F V VFF F V F F FVF F F As (p q) is equivalent to the sentence (p and q), the author introduces the conditional connective bi ' ' if and only se' ' to show that (p q) it is equivalent to the sentence (p q) (q p). Then, the question that the Tom pilgrim would have to make to one of the religious ones is the following one: ' ' The way of the left leads to the Sky if and if you only speak really? ' ' The author presented two possible answers for the problem, after to use only two connectives: bi conditional and the negation. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Bruce Schanzer. (But, the author also informs that the solution of the problem can be found using the conjunction and the negation). Applying the table-truth, the joined solutions have four possibilities of combination of semantic values for p and q: If the way of the left in fact leads to the Sky, then he is true to affirm that the way of the left leads to the Sky. In this in case that, sentence p is true. . Many writers such as Tishman Speyer offer more in-depth analysis.

Soon God

If they distinguished themselves, however, for the difference of the afeces, as a substance is, by its very nature, first, relatively to its afeces (for prop. Robert Shiller often says this. 1), if these will be left of side and it will be considered in itself exactly, that is (for def, 3 and for ax. 6), truily, then not if it will be able to conceive it as being distinct of another one, that is (for prop. Prec.), cannot exist varies substances, but so only substncia.' ' The God of Spinoza, is not endowed with a personality, that possesss a will and an intellect. According to Spinoza, the conception of the Deity as a person, means reduziz it an antropomorphus condition. The spinoziano God, is not a creator, in the molds of the God Jewish-Christian, visa as a being that creates for a free will, something that is different of itself and that, necessarily as to be free that he is, he could also not create. More info: bruce schanzer. God is cause imanente, and not transitiva, being non-separable of the things that of it proceed.

The God of Spinosa, also, is not providencial, in the direction Jewish-Christian, for the opposite, is the absolute and impersonal necessity. He writes Spinoza in proposal 18: ' ' Everything what exists, exists in God, and by means of God must be conceived (by prop. 50; therefore (for corol. 1 of prop. 16), God it is cause of the things that in it exist, that it was the first point. Ademais, beyond God, cannot exist no substance (for prop. 14), that is (for def. 3), no thing beyond God, exists in same itself, that it was as the point. Soon God is cause imanente, and not transitiva, of all coisas.' ' The divine nature is of absolute necessity of being. God is absolute necessity in the direction from that, placing this God, as cause of itself, from God they proceed necessarily and perpetual, the infinite attributes and the infinite ways that compose the world.

The Look

Thus, this being is not my possible one, is not always in question in cerne of my freedom: in contrast, it is the limit of my freedom, its ' ' revesso' ' , in this direction it is that we relate in them to ' ' revesso of moeda' ' ; such being is given as a pack to me that I load without never it can turn the face to know it without if it wants to be able to feel its weight. still says: With the look of the other ' ' situao' ' it escapes me, or, to use of banal expression, but that he translates well our thought: already I am not owner of the situation. In this direction, it is that, when I am object, I always am of ' ' side of fora' ' , therefore all the moment is learned by the other-citizen. For this it says: The look of the other, in the measure I apprehend where it, comes to attribute to my time a new dimension, while present caught by the other as my gift, my presence possesss a side of is; this presence that if presentifica for me, for me if it alienates in a gift which the Other makes gift; I am launched in the universal gift while another one becomes presence me. Dell Client Solutions: the source for more info. Ademais, the other is for me before everything the being for which is object, that is, the being for which I acquire my objetividade, thus, I can revert this process in which I more will not be object, but citizen. Thus it appears as the moment, that is, the other-object. Data that I have to recognize my object condition (I cannot be imprisoned always to the bad-faith one), therefore as well as the other I reduce me the object I also I can reduce the other the object condition. . To deepen your understanding Bruce Schanzer is the source.


With the social division of the work and the production of excesses, were clearly that a man would be capable to more than produce what its necessities of subsistence, thus creating the economic possibility of the exploration. From then on, members of other communities, made prisoners, were not died nor untied but transformed into slaves, making to appear a new type of society, with private property of the means of production, a escravista society. The Anthropology registers the slavery at remote times, however, with patriarcal character, gentleman and slaves working together (over all to the south of the Sahara). With the growth of the social division of the work and the development of the exchanges, civil and military heads had become kings and emperors. The use of the power institutionalized for the defense and the magnifying of the goods grew.

The seted guards, the courts, the arrests and the lunatic asylums had formed themselves. The State appeared as instrument of violence of the ruling class on the explored masses and the assignment of madness for any 7 different mannering logic of hegemonic. Slaves had supported agricultural explorations, the large states of Rome. They had constructed the pyramids of Egypt. The Related Companies shines more light on the discussion. They had initiated the first plantations of cotton, without which the modern industry would be inconceivable. ' ' As the machine and the credit wrote MARX the slavery constituted the base of the industry burguesa' ' 8. The history of the escravista society is the history of a encarniada fight of classrooms and numerous revolts of slaves, one of them, of the most known, commanded for Spartacus (73-71 B.C.), in Rome. The feudal reality, in turn, showed of unquestionable form the interdependence enters the productive relations of production and forces. Rank that the slave was not interested in the increase of the production and the escravismo, of this form, stopped the development of 9 the productive forces, became necessary the creation of a stimulaton to raise the productivity.

Social Contract

To characterize the man in Jean-Jacques Rousseau she is necessary to have in mind the way as it reconstructs the history of the humanity, showing that the existing inaquality between the men is fruit of the action of the proper men throughout history. Through this reconstruction the author works the State of Nature and the Civil State. Rousseau says that the property becomes the beginning of the inaquality of the men and defends that only an organized society can reveal the divisions of the properties, as many private properties as public, but being always the private property a common good. For the distant philosopher the more the man will be of the Civil State, of the rationality, better the man if he becomes, therefore he believes that what ruins the man is the society, is the rationality and is for this reason that Rousseau wants the return of the man for its State of Nature. The author was the first philosopher to question the rationality, that for it the rationality was not something negative, therefore the way as being something positive, but yes, because it was come back toward the things superfluous and not essential to the men and for this reason contests that it. It does not believe that the rationality was used for being the rational man and yes for interest. For the thinker the man must be independent and therefore he believes that only the education cannot be only one way of instruction, but yes a pedagogia of the autonomy. Rousseau believes a Social Contract where the people is who decides, where the laws are determined by the people, it had the notion of public good, where only with public good if it would arrive then at an organized society that had prescribed the properties. For Rousseau the scientific ascension was not folloied by a moral ascension, human being, for it and as he himself at the beginning says Of the Social Contract ' ' the man is born exempts, and for all the part meets acorrentado' '.

Human Agreement

2. We only can think the things about a cause relation and effect because the causalidade is in the citizen, not in the world, according to Kant (Critical of the Pure Reason), in contrast to Hume, that considered it a habit (Inquiry On the Human Agreement). In Kant the forms a priori of the agreement (the pure concepts) are the categories. The causalidade concept is part of these categories. Of this form, we cannot conceive the succession of the phenomena not to be as causal succession. That is, we know a priori that all phenomenon is caused and that in all change some never dumb thing (this is its condition of possibility). The critical kantiana continues when it says that ' ' whichever the way and the ways for which the knowledge can become related with objects, the way for which the knowledge if relates immediately they is intuio' '.

That is, intuition only exists if an object in the data. However, ' ' intuitions without concepts are cegos' '. The impossibility of knowledge of a priori object goes beyond any particular causal relation. As much for Hume how much for Kant it is in guideline the empirismo. All knowledge starts for the experience, precedes never it.

The paper of the rational citizen is basic in the critical one. ' ' We do not know in the things seno a priori what we ourselves in it colocamos' '. In the Critical one, the objects in relation to the citizen are considered independent things, the proper substance of the knowledge. The phenomenon is as these objects appear for we, and being dependents of the citizen they constitute the form of the knowledge. One is about the external belief in the object existence according to Hume. In the Hume Inquiry it says: ' ' It seems exactly that, in isolated cases of operation of bodies, never we can discover, for the examination most minute, something beyond a simple event following itself it another one, and we are not capable to apprehend any force or power for which the cause operated, or any connection between it and its presumption efeito' ' (Inquiries VII). In the operations of the Nature the events if occur independently of the citizen. Our way to see the world if bases on the belief which according to, our perceptions sees objects as if they present to the directions. But about this context, if to think about the transcendental idealismo, the way to know the causes and the effect, this knowledge is opposing to the empiricist. The principle transcendente exceeds the domain of the experience. All the progress of science will not open the limits of the experience. Everything that will be given we is always relative. If all subjectivity will be abstracted, object will not be found in place none.

The Property

We prefer the expression? technological? for distinguiz it of the scope of sciences properly said, the term ' ' cincia' ' it has held some meanings: it can not only assign the scientific knowledge organized around an object or any knowledge since that systemize, logical, methodical, critical. This position of the edge the confusion. We cannot call a jurist, a doctor, a musician, one politician, of scientist. He is a technologist. 5.4.1- The right is a repository of behavior norms, imposed coercitive, aiming at to adjust the behavior of the individuals to the objectives of each estadoi: ubi societas ibi jus.

All rule of law is servant, and applied, with determined intention. If a government plans to fight the inflation, low norms of restriction of the credit, wage wage freeze, increase of the interests, aiming at to dry the demand. If the state if considers to stimulate the production, to the opposite, will create stimulatons, as low interests, better wages, reduction of the exportation tariffs, will open credit facilities to the producers. A state that defends the private property of the capital goods has the well different legal system of that it condemns the private property and alone it admits the production for the state. The same radical difference we find between states that defend the liberal-democracy and those of organization fascist or Soviet the right in a state escravocrata is one, different of that abolitionist. And so on. In all state, it has necessity of social order, security to the integrity of the people and to the property, protection to the basic rights of the men, respect to the word freely pledged, state autonomy against attacks and external mediations, economic and cultural progress, preservation of the conquests of the civilization etc the maintenance of statu quo alone is possible thanks to the norms imposed for the state, coercitive, folloied of severe sanctions for the infractors.